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Cal Newport

How to Become a Straight-A Student: The Unconventional Strategies Real College Students Use to Score High While Studying Less

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    World As I Seeje citiraoпре 10 месеци
    The bigger problem here is that most students don’t even realize that they’re pseudo-working.
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    Try to label each of your to-dos for the day with a specific time period during which you are going to complete it
    haneliuje citiralaпрошлог месеца
    to choose the right locations, times of day, and durations to study
    haneliuje citiralaпрошлог месеца
    With this formula in mind, you can begin to understand why many straight-A students actually study less than their classmates: They replace long, low-intensity stretches of work with a small number of short, high-intensity sessions
    haneliuje citiralaпрошлог месеца
    The work that took you all day Sunday to complete could instead be finished by studying an hour after breakfast, an hour after lunch, and an hour after dinner—the rest of the day being free for you to relax
    haneliuje citiralaпрошлог месеца
    work accomplished = time spent x intensity of focus
    haneliuje citiralaпрошлог месеца
    As humans, our minds have evolved to prefer short-term tasks such as “run away from that lion” or “eat food.” Therefore, when you walk into the library on a Sunday morning with the goal of finishing all of your homework and writing a paper, your brain isn’t happy. The idea of spending eight consecutive hours trapped in a study carrel is dispiriting. Plus, it’s hard to focus for that long, so pretty soon fatigue will set in, your concentration will wander, and every distraction will suddenly seem impossibly appealing. Before you know it, the day will be over and you’ll realize that you haven’t accomplished much productive work at all. The next day, new assignments will pile onto those you didn’t finish on Sunday, and the tedious process starts all over again
    haneliuje citiralaпрошлог месеца
    As humans, our minds have evolved to prefer short-term tasks such as “run away from that lion” or “eat food
    Сергей Гайнje citiraoпре 4 месеца
    Use the List During the Day
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Step #1. Target a Titillating Topic

    • Start looking for an interesting topic early.

    Step #2. Conduct a Thesis-Hunting Expedition

    • Start with general sources and then follow references to find the more targeted sources where good thesis ideas often hide.

    Step #3. Seek a Second Opinion

    • A thesis is not a thesis until a professor has approved it.

    Step #4. Research like a Machine

    • Find sources.

    • Make personal copies of all sources.

    • Annotate the material.

    • Decide if you’re done. (If the answer is “no,” loop back to #1.)

    Step #5. Craft a Powerful Story

    • There is no shortcut to developing a well-balanced and easy-to-follow argument.

    • Dedicate a good deal of thought over time to getting it right.

    • Describe your argument in a topic-level outline.

    • Type supporting quotes from sources directly into your outline.

    Step #6. Consult Your Expert Panel

    • Before starting to write, get some opinions on the organization of your argument and your support from classmates and friends who are familiar with the general area of study.

    • The more important the paper, the more people who should review it.

    Step #7. Write Without the Agony

    • Follow your outline and articulate your points clearly.

    • Write no more than three to five pages per weekday and five to eight pages per weekend day.

    Step #8. Fix, Don’t Fixate

    • Solid editing requires only three careful passes:

    – The Argument Adjustment Pass: Read the paper carefully on your computer to make sure your argument is clear, fix obvious errors, and rewrite where the flow needs improvement.

    – The Out Loud Pass: Carefully read out loud a printed copy of your paper, marking any awkward passages or unclear explanations.

    – The Sanity Pass: A final pass over a printed version of the paper to check the overall flow and to root out any remaining errors.
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    A topic describes an interesting subject or area of observation. A thesis presents an interesting, specific argument about that subject or observation.
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Step #1. Take Smart Notes

    • Always go to class and try to take the best notes possible.

    • For nontechnical courses, capture the big ideas by taking notes in the question/evidence/conclusion format.

    • For technical courses, record as many sample problems and answers as possible.

    Step #2. Demote Your Assignments

    • Work a little bit each day on your assignments; avoid suffering from day-before syndrome.

    • Read only the favored sources on the syllabus in detail. To decide how much time to spend on supplemental sources, remember the importance hierarchy:

    – readings that make an argument are more important than

    – readings that describe an event or person, which are more important than

    – readings that only provide context (i.e., speech transcripts, press clippings).

    • Take reading notes in the question/evidence/conclusion format.

    • Work in groups on problem sets, solve problems on the go, and write up your answers formally the first time.

    Step #3. Marshal Your Resources

    • Figure out exactly what the test will cover.

    • Cluster your notes for nontechnical courses.

    • Build mega-problem sets for technical courses.

    Step #4. Conquer the Material

    • Embrace the quiz-and-recall method. It’s the single most efficient way to study.

    • Spread out memorization over several days. Your mind can do only so much at a time.

    Step #5. Invest in “Academic Disaster Insurance”

    • Eliminate the question marks for topics covered in class or from the reading that you don’t understand.

    Step #6. Provide “A+” Answers

    • Look over the whole test first.

    • Figure out how much time you have to spend on each question (leaving a ten-minute cushion at the end).

    • Answer the questions in order of increasing difficulty.

    • Write out a mini-outline before tackling an essay question.

    • Use any and all leftover time to check and recheck your work.
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Part One Cheat Sheet

    Step #1. Manage Your Time in Five Minutes a Day

    • Jot down to-dos and deadlines on a list whenever they arise.

    • Transfer these to-dos and deadlines to your calendar every morning.

    • Plan your day each morning by labeling your to-dos with realistic time frames and moving what you don’t have time for to different dates.

    Step #2. Declare War on Procrastination

    • Keep a work progress journal, and every day record what you wanted to accomplish and whether or not you succeeded.

    • When working, eat healthy snacks to maximize your energy.

    • Transform horrible tasks into a big event to help you gather the energy to start.

    • Build work routines to make steady progress on your obligations without expending too much of your limited motivational resources.

    • Choose your hard days in advance to minimize their impact.

    Step #3. Choose When, Where, and How Long

    • Try to fit as much work as possible into the morning and afternoon, between classes and obligations.

    • Study in isolated locations.

    • Take a break every hour.
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Procrastination Battle Plan #5: Choose your hard days
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Procrastination Battle Plan #3: Make an event out of the worst tasks
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Procrastination Battle Plan #4: Build a routine
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Procrastination Battle Plan #2: Feed the Machine
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Procrastination Battle Plan #1: Keep a work progress journal
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    They replace long, low-intensity stretches of work with a small number of short, high-intensity sessions.
    Qinetta Aidiaje citiraoпре 7 месеци
    Finally, to obtain the highest possible levels of intensity, you need to choose the right locations, times of day, and durations to study.
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