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B.F.,Skinner

Beyond Freedom and Dignity

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    Сергей Соловьёвje citiraoпре 7 година
    Whether or not he could have foreseen the damage, man must repair it or all is lost. And he can do so if he will recognize the nature of the difficulty. The application of the physical and biological sciences alone will not solve our problems because the solutions lie in another field. Better contraceptives will control population only if people use them. New weapons may offset new defenses and vice versa, but a nuclear holocaust can be prevented only if the conditions under which nations make war can be changed. New methods of agriculture and medicine will not help if they are not practiced, and housing is a matter not only of buildings and cities but of how people live. Overcrowding can be corrected only by inducing people not to crowd, and the environment will continue to deteriorate until polluting practices are abandoned.
    Angélica Pineda Herreraje citiraoпре 5 месеци
    The mental explanation brings curiosity to an end.
    Angélica Pineda Herreraje citiraoпре 5 месеци
    It would be much more to the point to know what has happened when he has gone to the theater in the past, what he heard or read about the play he went to see, and what other things in his past or present environments might have induced him to go (as opposed to doing something else), but we accept “I felt like going” as a sort of summary of all this and are not likely to ask for details.
    Angélica Pineda Herreraje citiraoпре 5 месеци
    The mental explanation brings curiosity to an end. We see the effect in casual discourse. If we ask someone, “Why did you go to the theater?” and he says, “Because I felt like going,” we are apt to take his reply as a kind of explanation. It would be much more to the point to know what has happened when he has gone to the theater in the past, what he heard or read about the play he went to see, and what other things in his past or present environments might have induced him to go (as opposed to doing something else), but we accept “I felt like going” as a sort of summary of all this and are not likely to ask for details.
    Angélica Pineda Herreraje citiraoпре 5 месеци
    It is easy to conclude that there must be something about human behavior which makes a scientific analysis, and hence an effective technology, impossible, but we have not by any means exhausted the possibilities.
    Angélica Pineda Herreraje citiraoпре 5 месеци
    The fact that equally powerful instruments and methods are not available in the field of human behavior is not an explanation; it is only part of the puzzle. Was putting a man on the moon actually easier than improving education in our public schools?
    Angélica Pineda Herreraje citiraoпре 5 месеци
    a behavioral technology comparable in power and precision to physical and biological technology is lacking, and those who do not find the very possibility ridiculous are more likely to be frightened by it than reassured. That is how far we are from “understanding human issues” in the sense in which physics and biology understand their fields, and how far we are from preventing the catastrophe toward which the world seems to be inexorably moving.
    Angélica Pineda Herreraje citiraoпре 5 месеци
    It is not enough to “use technology with a deeper understanding of human issues,” or to “dedicate technology to man’s spiritual needs,” or to “encourage technologists to look at human problems.” Such expressions imply that where human behavior begins, technology stops, and that we must carry on, as we have in the past, with what we have learned from personal experience or from those collections of personal experiences called history,
    Сергей Соловьёвje citiraoпре 7 година
    Man’s first experience with causes probably came from his own behavior: things moved because he moved them. If other things moved, it was because someone else was moving them, and if the mover could not be seen, it was because he was invisible. The Greek gods served in this way as the causes of physical phenomena.
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