William Strunk Jr.

The Elements of Style

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The man whom he thought was his friend
The man who (that) he thought was his friend (whom he thought his friend)
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Compare:

While the temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime, the nights are often chilly.

Although the temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime, the nights are often chilly.

The paraphrase,

The temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime; at the same time the nights are often chilly,

shows why the use of while is incorrect.

In general, the writer will do well to use while only with strict literalness, in the sense of during the time that.
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While.

Avoid the indiscriminate use of this word for and, but, and although. Many writers use it frequently as a substitute for and or but, either from a mere desire to vary the connective, or from uncertainty which of the two connectives is the more appropriate. In this use it is best replaced by a semicolon.
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each, each one, everybody,every one, many a man, which, though implying more than one person, requires the pronoun to be in the singular.
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One of the most.

Avoid beginning essays or paragraphs with this formula, as, "One of the most interesting developments of modern science is, etc.;" "Switzerland is one of the most interesting countries of Europe." There is nothing wrong in this; it is simply threadbare and forcible-feeble.
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Near by.

Adverbial phrase, not yet fully accepted as good English, though the analogy of close by and hard by seems to justify it. Near, or near at hand, is as good, if not better.

Not to be used as an adjective; use neighboring.
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It is, however, correct to say, "The signers of the petition were less than a hundred," where the round number, a hundred, is something like a collective noun, and less is thought of as meaning a less quantity or amount.
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"His troubles are less than mine" means "His troubles are not so great as mine." "His troubles are fewer than mine" means "His troubles are not so numerous as mine."
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Less.

Should not be misused for fewer.

He had less men than in the previous campaign.
He had fewer men than in the previous campaign.
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Kind of.

Not to be used as a substitute for rather (before adjectives and verbs), or except in familiar style, for something like (before nouns). Restrict it to its literal sense: "Amber is a kind of fossil resin;" "I dislike that kind of notoriety." The same holds true of sort of.
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When however comes first, it means in whatever way or to whatever extent.

However you advise him, he will probably do as he thinks best.

However discouraging the prospect, he never lost heart.
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However.

In the meaning nevertheless, not to come first in its sentence or clause.

The roads were almost impassable. However, we at last succeeded in reaching camp.

The roads were almost impassable. At last, however, we succeeded in reaching camp.
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At the end of a list introduced by such as, for example, or any similar expression, etc. is incorrect.
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Effect.

As noun, means result; as verb, means to bring about, accomplish (not to be confused with affect, which means "to influence").
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Compare, "The lecturer considered Cromwell first as soldier and second as administrator," where "considered" means "examined" or "discussed."
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Consider.

Not followed by as when it means, "believe to be." "I consider him thoroughly competent."
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Compare.

To compare to is to point out or imply resemblances, between objects regarded as essentially of different order; to compare with is mainly to point out differences, between objects regarded as essentially of the same order. Thus life has been compared to a pilgrimage, to a drama, to a battle; Congress may be compared with the British Parliament. Paris has been compared to ancient Athens; it may be compared with modern London.

Clever.

This word has been greatly overused; it is best restricted to ingenuity displayed in small matters.

Consider.

Not followed by as when it means, "believe to be." "I consider him thoroughly competent."
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Claim, vb.

With object-noun, means lay claim to. May be used with a dependent clause if this sense is clearly involved: "He claimed that he was the sole surviving heir." (But even here, "claimed to be" would be better.) Not to be used as a substitute for declare, maintain, or charge.
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Wood, Suggestions to Authors, pp. 68-71, and Quiller-Couch, The Art of Writing, pp. 103-106.
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word is usually unnecessary.

In many cases, the rooms were poorly ventilated.
Many of the rooms were poorly ventilated.
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