The Little Book of Feminism, Harriet Dyer
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Harriet Dyer

The Little Book of Feminism

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t, ‘A culture fixated on female thinness is not an obsession about female beauty, but an obsession about female obedience
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Although clearly influenced by second-wave feminism’s mantra that ‘the personal is political’, third-wave feminism wanted to move away from the prescriptive attitudes of its predecessors and towards the idea of freedom to choose. Previously topics such as porn or gender had strict dos and don’ts for what was good for women. For example, pornography was always seen to be oppressing the woman, even if the woman thought she wanted to partake in or watch it. This particular debate was fought in the rather gloriously named ‘feminist sex wars’ (also known by the similarly flamboyant title of ‘porn wars’). The boiled-down argument focussed on whether a woman, living in a patriarchal society where she is nurtured to think a certain way about how women should behave and please men, could ever be able truly to make an independent decision to participate in porn. Some also felt that second-wave feminists’ criticisms about sexual oppression actually themselves oppressed women. For example, second-wave feminists discredited the idea that a woman could genuinely enjoy sadomasochism, refuting the idea that it could be participated in healthily and be a natural, personal kink.
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long-held assumptions

давние предположения

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The phrase ‘The personal is political’ was popularised by a 1969 essay by Carol Hanisch, although she denies originating the phrase herself. It is a handy summing up of the arguments of second-wave feminists: personal experience and problems have political origins and solutions. Issues that women faced concerning sex, contraception, abortion, appearance, childcare and division of labour in the home were not just each woman’s personal problem but something that stemmed from historical and social issues and could be solved with increased awareness and changes in legislation and policy.

One example of this is Germaine Greer’s 1970 book The Female Eunuch. She argued that there was no difference between the brain of a man and that of a woman and that it was the traditional nuclear family that oppressed women. She said that society taught women self-imposed limitations (e.g. through emphasis on motherhood and ‘ladylike’ behaviour) and that by limiting their place in society, both men and women were taught subconsciously to hate women. She said the freedom she was looking for was ‘Freedom to run, shout, talk loudly and sit with your knees apart
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depicted in the media
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Then the sixties swept in and with it the sexual revolution and the start of second-wave feminism in America, known as the women’s liberation movement. A wave of increasingly liberal attitudes swept society; drug-taking, long hair, rock music, increasingly rebellious teenagers breaking away from the drab conformism they identified with their parents’ generation and… sex. People were not only having sex but talking about it, and women were coming up with some pointers for improvement. Traditionally, a woman’s sexuality was tangled up with societal pressure not to have sex and a lack of available contraception, leading to a raft of problems including social judgement if she did have sex. If a woman got past these obstacles, she often found that her own sexual pleasure was sidelined in favour of her male partner’s
monika
monikaje citiralaпре 3 месеца
‘WHAT IS FEMINISM? SIMPLY THE BELIEF THAT WOMEN SHOULD BE AS FREE AS MEN, HOWEVER NUTS, DIM, DELUDED, BADLY DRESSED, FAT, RECEDING, LAZY, AND SMUG THEY MIGHT BE.’

CAITLIN MORAN
monika
monikaje citiralaпре 3 месеца
‘I THINK THE PERSON WHO SAID: “HONEY, IF MEN COULD GET PREGNANT, ABORTION WOULD BE A SACRAMENT” WAS RIGHT.’

GLORIA STEINEM
monika
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IF IT IS RIGHT FOR MEN TO FIGHT FOR THEIR FREEDOM, AND GOD KNOWS WHAT THE HUMAN RACE WOULD BE LIKE TODAY IF MEN HAD NOT, SINCE TIME BEGAN, FOUGHT FOR THEIR FREEDOM, THEN IT IS RIGHT FOR WOMEN TO FIGHT FOR THEIR FREEDOM AND THE FREEDOM OF THE CHILDREN THEY BEAR.’

EMMELINE PANKHURST
Дарья Янкевич
Дарья Янкевичje citiralaпре 4 месеца
studies have found that men receive internet abuse for a variety of reasons but rarely simply for being men. Women, however, are often targeted by gender-specific and sexually aggressive slurs and threats.
Artem Ablenko
Artem Ablenko je citiraoпре 6 месеци
Cisgender: A person whose birth gender matches the gender with which they identify.
Artem Ablenko
Artem Ablenko je citiraoпре 6 месеци
Instead, research has shown that women have the biological potential to be equal to men in many ways, but social norms, laws and lack of opportunity have stood in their way. Studies introduced ideas such as the theory that parents pushing their children to play with gendered toys meant children learned to act a certain way according to whether they were a boy or a girl, which was then taken to mean they were ‘naturally’ feminine/masculine.
Artem Ablenko
Artem Ablenko je citiraoпре 6 месеци
Then the sixties swept in and with it the sexual revolution and the start of second-wave feminism in America, known as the women’s liberation movement. A wave of increasingly liberal attitudes swept society; drug-taking, long hair, rock music, increasingly rebellious teenagers breaking away from the drab conformism they identified with their parents’ generation and… sex. People were not only having sex but talking about it, and women were coming up with some pointers for improvement. Traditionally, a woman’s sexuality was tangled up with societal pressure not to have sex and a lack of available contraception, leading to a raft of problems including social judgement if she did have sex. If a woman got past these obstacles, she often found that her own sexual pleasure was sidelined in favour of her male partner’s.
Artem Ablenko
Artem Ablenko je citiraoпре 6 месеци
Second-wave feminism wasn’t the only feminist movement growing out of the sixties. The decade also saw the rise of radical feminism, sharing many of the same concerns about a woman’s place in the home, at work, sexual objectification and amount of reproductive control. However, some of these views are taken to a more extreme and, some would say, black-and-white view. For example, a famous radical feminist perspective is that pornography is the eroticisation of women’s humiliation and coercion, and so pornography is tantamount to rape. They would argue that even if a female porn artist thought that she chose the profession, or a woman thought she enjoyed watching porn, this was a result of society’s brainwashing rather than ‘truth’. As with many criticisms of radical feminist theories, modern critics say this is patronising and sex-shaming; it dismisses the idea that women can refuse to be objectified but still enjoy sex and watching porn.
Даша Кравченко
Даша Кравченкоje citiralaпрошле године
This included better education opportunities, access to certain professions, equal rights in employment, the right to control their own money and property and, of course, the right to vote.
TDC A/S
TDC A/Sje citiraoпрошле године
Third-wave feminists continued their predecessors’ work on raising awareness about the issues of rape and domestic violence and how the political system could work harder to protect victims of both those issues.
TDC A/S
TDC A/Sje citiraoпрошле године
Placing importance on the adolescent girl’s standpoint, the riot grrrl movement included home-made ’zines, political action, bands and activism.
Paula Ortiz Ayala
Paula Ortiz Ayalaje citiralaпре 2 године
Abortion Act 1967:
Paula Ortiz Ayala
Paula Ortiz Ayalaje citiralaпре 2 године
Abortion Act 1967
Paula Ortiz Ayala
Paula Ortiz Ayalaje citiralaпре 2 године
By adopting ‘the personal is political’ as their mantra, second-wave feminists made it acceptable to talk about these issues. It meant they weren’t dismissed as private
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